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My Pilgrimage from Atheism to Theism


Back to Article1. "Christianity Challenges the University: An International Conference of Theists and Atheists," Dallas, Texas, February 7 - 10, 1985, organized by Roy Abraham Varghese.

Back to Article2. See Gary R. Habermas and Antony G. N. Flew, Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? The Resurrection Debate, ed. Terry L. Miethe (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987; Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2003).

Back to Article3. Some examples by Antony Flew include "Miracles and Methodology," in Hume's Philosophy of Belief: A Study of His First Inquiry (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961); "The Credentials of Revelation: Miracle and History," in God and Philosophy (New York: Dell, 1966); "Miracles," in Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Paul Edwards (New York: Macmillan, 1967); "The Impossibility of the Miraculous," in Hume's Philosophy of Religion, (Winston-Salem, NC: Wake Forest University Press, 1985); introduction to Of Miracles, by David Hume (La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1985); "Neo-Humean Arguments about the Miraculous" in In Defence of Miracles: A Comprehensive Case for God's Action in History, ed. R. Douglas Geivett and Gary R. Habermas (Downers Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press, 1997).

Back to Article4. Some examples by Gary Habermas include The Risen Jesus and Future Hope (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003); The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (Joplin, MO; College, 1996); The Resurrection of Jesus: An Apologetic (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1980; Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984); "Knowing that Jesus' Resurrection Occurred: A Response to Stephen Davis," Faith and Philosophy 2 (1985): 295 - 302; "Resurrection Claims in Non-Christian Religions," Religious Studies 25 (1989): 167 - 77; "The Late Twentieth-Century Resurgence of Naturalistic Responses to Jesus' Resurrection," Trinity Journal 22 (2001): 179 - 96. For a more popular treatment, see Habermas and Michael R. Licona, The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 2004).

Back to Article5. Gary R. Habermas and Antony G. N. Flew, Resurrected? An Atheist and Theist Debate, ed. John Ankerberg (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, forthcoming).

Back to Article6. The dialogue took place as a part of the Veritas Forum and is accessible at

Back to Article7. Telephone conversation, September 9, 2004.

Back to Article8. Both participants also agreed to the title of the interview.

Back to Article9. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971).

Back to Article10. Gerald L. Schroeder, The Science of God: The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom (New York: Broadway Books, 1998).

Back to Article11. Letter from Antony Flew, November 9, 2000.

Back to Article12. Antony Flew, "God and the Big Bang" (lecture, 2000), 5 - 6; this is a lecture commemorating the 140th anniversary of the British Association meeting regarding Charles Darwin's The Origin of the Species.

Back to Article13. C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (New York: Macmillan, 1980), especially Book 1.

Back to Article14. Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind (London: Hutchinson, 1948).

Back to Article15. G. W. Leibniz, Theodicy, ed. A. Farrer, trans. E. M. Huggard (1710; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965).

Back to Article16. Donald W. Livingston, Philosophical Melancholy and Delirium: Hume's Pathology of Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 150.

Back to Article17. Antony Flew, Social Life and Moral Judgment (New Brunswick, NH: Transaction, 2003).

Back to Article18. Antony Flew, "Selves," Mind (1949): 355 - 8.

Back to Article19. Antony Flew, The Logic of Mortality (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987).

Back to Article20. Richard Swinburne, The Evolution of the Soul (Oxford: Clarendon, 1986).

Back to Article21. Antony Flew, Merely Mortal? Can You Survive Your Own Death? (Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2000).

Back to Article22. For many cases see Gary R. Habermas and J. P. Moreland, Beyond Death: Exploring the Evidence for Immortality (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1998; Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2003), chapters 7 - 9.

Back to Article23. Letter from Antony Flew, September 6, 2000.

Back to Article24. Joseph Butler, Butler's Works, ed. W. E. Gladstone (Oxford: Clarendon, 1896), 1:387.

Back to Article25. Antony Flew, A New Approach to Psychical Research (London: C. A. Watts, 1953).

Back to Article26. Letter from Antony Flew, September 6, 2000.

Back to Article27. Flew, "God and the Big Bang," 2.  Habermas's influence on Flew's statement here is noted in Flew's letter of November 9, 2000 (cf. note 11 above).

Back to Article28. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I, q.23, a.3.

Back to Article29. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, Book 3, chapter 67.

Back to Article30. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, III, supp.94, a.1 - 3.

Back to Article31. Qur'an 2, trans. Arthur J. Arberry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Back to Article32. Qur'an 5.

Back to Article33. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. J. C. A. Gaskin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 416, chapter 44.

Back to Article34. This is the version of the Qur'an as "interpreted" by Arthur Arberry, in the Oxford University Press edition.

Back to Article35. D. J. West, Eleven Lourdes Miracles (London: George Duckworth, 1957).

Back to Article36. Bernard Smith, The Fraudulent Gospel: Politics and the World Council of Churches (London: Foreign Affairs, 1977).

Back to Article37. See, for example, Bertrand Russell, Bertrand Russell Speaks His Mind, ed. Woodrow Wyatt (New York: Bard Books, 1960), 19 - 20.

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